Officially known as the Republic of Poland, Poland is a nation in Central Europe renowned for its beautiful cities, castles, and diverse geography.
With over 37.97 million people (2019), Poland is named one of the best countries to visit in Europe, and for a good reason.
From the magical countryside to the wide variety of attractions and festivals to the numerous exciting destinations throughout the country, there are hundreds of reasons to visit Poland.
Poland has an abundance of interesting cities (including the historic capital of Krakow, which is home to Kazimierz, the country’s main medieval square). It is also an excellent destination for those who want to explore the natural world, with beautiful national parks and mountains to discover.
You can enjoy exploring the Wilanow Palace and Old town of Warsaw, stroll the long market and check out the grandeur of the St. Mary’s Church in Gdansk, and so much more. Poland has everything for everyone.
During the mid-1500s, united Poland was the largest and perhaps, the most powerful country in the continent. Then, after two and a half centuries, the state disappeared among the other powerful empires of Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Poland is a safe country for tourists; however, it doesn’t mean you become careless. On the contrary, you must be cautious and never keep your belongings unattended, as pickpockets and scammers may find an opportunity anytime.
Poland is located in central Europe. The Baltic Sea borders it to the north, Russia and Lithuania to the northeast, and Belarus and Ukraine to the east.
The south borders follow the watershed of Carpathian, Sudeten, and the Beskid mountains that separate the country from Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The Neisse and Oder rivers border the country with Germany to the west.
Its landscapes can be divided into three groups: the lowlands, the highlands, and the mountains.
The country’s relief was formed by Ice Age glaciers that receded over the northern part of the country some 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago.
The varying air masses that collide over the country influence the type of weather and climate.
Oceanic air masses from the west, cold polar air from Scandinavia, and subtropical air from the south affect the country’s environment.
In short, there are six seasons in Poland: snowy winter, early spring of one to two months, sunny spring, warm summer with a mix of rain and sunshine, warm autumn, and foggy, humid period.
The country gets 610 mm of rainfall. However, the mountains get 787-1,194mm of rain.
Nature and Wildlife
Since the last Ice Age, Poland has developed vegetation and now houses some 2,250 species of seed plants, 200 liverworts, 630 mosses, and 1,500 fungi.
The country’s one-fourth part is wooded.
Beech, fir, and oak varieties run through the Polish territory. You can also find some endemic species like the Polish larch and the Ojcrow birch.
In terms of animals, they belong to the European-West Siberian zoo geographic province. In addition, the country houses more than 200 native birds.
You can find wild pigs and deer in the woods, elks in the northeastern coniferous forests and brindled gopher in the south, and brown bears in the Carpathian Mountains.
Wildcats inhabit the mountain woods, whereas the chamois and marmot can be found in higher elevations.
Check out the once-extinct European Bison in the Bialowieza Forest’s national parks. These were reintroduced using the zoo-bred animals.